Author: George Michalopoulos, DC, DACNB,FABBIR, FABCDD, FABVR

Trees in the shape of heads

Neurocognitive Disorders in Society

Throughout history, there has been a debate of where the seat of intelligence and cognition lives, with Hippocratic doctors arguing in favor of the brain, while Aristotle argued in favor of the heart as the dominant organ for sensation, cognition, and movement. Over time, the brain’s dominant role in cognition has become more apparent, and this has been depicted in the history of the arts.

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Long-Term Consequences of Head Injuries (CTE)

Concussion awareness and education have drastically increased over the past decade, and many are now aware of that head injuries may lead to negative long-term neurological consequences, such as dementia. Every year new research is published, enhancing our understanding of concussions and what we can do to help our patients with a history of head trauma. So, what do we know about the long-term consequences of concussions in 2020?

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Older adult receiving help getting off floor

Vestibular Dysfunction

Each year millions of people lose their balance and fall. This number increases for those older than 65 years, as in this group, 1 out of 4 people fall each year. The death rates due to falls have increased 30% from 2007 to 2016 for older adults, and, if this rate continues, by 2030 we will expect to see 7 deaths from falls every hour. 1 out of every 5 falls causes serious injuries, such as broken bones or head injuries. 95% of hip fractures are caused by falling, and falls are the most common cause of traumatic brain injuries (TBI).

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Image of the human body


Dysautonomia is an abnormal regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Dysautonomia commonly occurs as a result of a traumatic brain injury, toxin exposure, traumatic event, bedrest, medication side effects, joint hypermobility syndromes, diabetes, neurodegenerative conditions, autoimmune conditions, and some reports have been documented post-vaccination (especially with younger females). Dysautonomia affects approximately 70 million people worldwide, and the symptoms of dysautonomia may be “invisible” to the untrained eye.

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